Mely Caballero-Anthony is professor of international relations, holds the president’s chair for international relations and security studies, heads the Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies, and is associate dean for external engagement at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) at Nanyang Technological University. Anthony’s research interests include regionalism and multilateralism in the Asia-Pacific, human security and non-traditional security, nuclear security, conflict prevention, and global governance. She has led a number of global and regional research projects on international security and global governance. Anthony has served as the secretary-general of the Consortium on Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia since 2008 and is a member of the International Climate Security Expert Network. She was vice president at large of the governing council of the International Studies Association (ISA) and was member of ISA’s Global South Task Force from 2018 to 2021. From 2013 to 2017, Anthony was a member of the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and served as its chair in 2016. She is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Leadership Network on Nuclear Non-Proliferation. From 2011 to 2012, she was director of external relations at the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat. Anthony has published extensively on a broad range of security issues in the Asia-Pacific in peer-reviewed journals and international academic presses. Her latest books include COVID-19 and Atrocity Prevention in East Asia, Nuclear Governance in the Asia-Pacific, and Negotiating Governance on Non-Traditional Security in Southeast Asia and Beyond.
Patricio Barreiro is director of institutional development and international cooperation at the Center for the Implementation of Public Policies Promoting Equity and Growth (CIPPEC). Barreiro has been working on issues of institutional development since 2014. Previously, he was communications and fundraising manager at Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez Children’s Hospital in Buenos Aires. Prior to that, Barreiro worked in information technology consulting as head of communications and new business for Latin America and the United States. In 2003, he began his career as a consulting lawyer and trained in business administration. Barreiro graduated with degrees in law and journalism, specializing in institutional communications, innovative marketing, and fundraising strategies.
Juan Battaleme is academic director of the Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI). He specializes in national security and defense, and is professor at several undergraduate and graduate universities in Argentina, including the University of Buenos Aires, the Center for Macroeconomic Studies of Argentina University (UCEMA), Austral University, the Naval War College, and the Air War College. Battaleme was a Fulbright Scholar, a National Defense University fellow, and a Chevening Scholar. He is a doctoral candidate in organizations management at UCEMA, and a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Margherita Bianchi is head of the energy, climate, and resources research program at the Institute of International Affairs (IAI), where she currently coordinates research projects related to Italian, European, and international energy and climate policy development. Her research interests include climate and energy governance and the EU external engagement and foreign policy. She previously worked at the European Parliament, the Italian Group of Seven presidency’s task force, and the UN Environment Program. She has lectured at several Italian universities and frequently provides expert insights to international and Italian news outlets. Bianchi holds a bachelor’s degree in political science and international relations from the Catholic University of Milan, a master’s degree in European affairs from the Luiss School of Government in Rome, and master’s degree in EU law from the Institute of European Studies in Brussels.
Lucca Belli is professor of digital governance and regulation at Fundação Getulio Vargas’s (FGV) law school, where he directs the Center for Technology and Society and the CyberBRICS project. Belli is also editor of the International Data Privacy Law Journal, published by Oxford University Press. He is currently a member of the board of the Alliance for Affordable Internet and director of the Computers, Privacy and Data Protection conference in Latin America. He is the author of more than fifty publications on law and technology, and his works have been cited by numerous media outlets, including the Economist, the Financial Times, Forbes, Le Monde, BBC, China Today, the Beijing Review, the Hill, O Globo, Folha de São Paulo, El Pais, and La Stampa. Belli holds a PhD in public law from Panthéon-Assas University Paris.
Alex Benkenstein is the head of the governance of Africa’s resources programme at the South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), which he joined in November 2010. His work at SAIIA has focused on resource governance–related issues, particularly in the fields of fisheries, ocean governance, and mining. Through his work at SAIIA, Benkenstein has collaborated with several partners in the public and private sector, such as the World Gold Council’s Standards for Conflict-Free Gold, the Southern African Development Community’s Think Tank Forum on Climate Change, the New Partnership For Africa’s Development Agency, and the Benguela Current Commission. He was appointed as head of research for the Regency Foundation Networx, where his work focused on climate change, particularly corporate-social-responsibility responses to emerging issues surrounding climate change. Prior to that, he was a researcher for the South African consultancy Managing for Excellence, where he completed projects for various clients, including the Parliament of South Africa. Benkenstein graduated from the University of Stellenbosch with a master’s degree in international studies.
Esther Brimmer is the James H. Binger senior fellow in global governance at the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR). Her primary areas of interest are international organizations and transatlantic relations. At CFR, she is writing a book about the need to craft new mechanisms of governance to manage human activities in outer space. She previously served as project director for CFR’s task force report Arctic Imperatives: Reinforcing U.S. Strategy on America’s Fourth Coast. From 2017 through 2022, Brimmer was executive director and CEO of NAFSA: Association of International Educators, the largest nonprofit professional association dedicated to international education with around 10,000 members in more than 160 countries. She previously led U.S. policy in international organizations as the assistant secretary of state for International Organization Affairs from 2009 to 2013, and served on the policy planning staff from 1999 to 2001. Brimmer was the J. B. and Maurice C. Shapiro professor at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. She was the first deputy director and director of research at the Center for Transatlantic Relations (CTR) at the Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies from 2001 to 2009. While at CTR, Brimmer was also a visiting professor at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium. Brimmer has served in the private sector as a senior advisor at McLarty Associates, and earlier as an associate at McKinsey & Company. Early in her career, she was a senior associate at the Carnegie commission on preventing deadly conflict. Brimmer has published numerous articles and edited eight books on transatlantic relations, including Defending the Gains? Transatlantic Responses When Democracy Is Under Threat; Changing Identities, Enduring Values: Is There Still a Transatlantic Community?; and The Strategic Implications of EU Enlargement (with Stefan Fröhlich). Brimmer received her bachelor’s degree from Pomona College and master’s degree and doctorate from Oxford University.
Héctor Cárdenas is president and CEO of the Ergo Group, Inc.; board member of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI); and lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley’s Goldman School of Public Policy. Cárdenas is an executive and consultant with twenty years of experience in public policy, international affairs, technology strategy, technology implementation, and management consulting. He has advised public sector agencies at all three levels of government on public policy issues in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Cárdenas has consulted with the World Bank; the Interamerican Development Bank; the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); the French Development Agency; the U.S. Department of Labor; and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. He has also consulted with various agencies of the governments of Mexico, Canada, and California. Cárdenas has been a member of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Working Group on Migration and served on the California advisory board of Nacional Financiera, Mexico’s development bank. He holds a BA in international relations from the College of Mexico, an MPA from the National School of Administration in France, and an MPP and PhD in public policy from University of California, Berkeley’s Goldman School of Public Policy.
Javier Castro de León
Javier Castro de León is executive director of the Salvadoran Foundation for Economic and Social Development (FUSADES), a think tank established in 1983 devoted to promoting economic and social development in El Salvador. His areas of research include democratic institutions, rule of law, justice, transparency, and access to information. De León was previously director, manager, and senior researcher at FUSADES’ legal studies department. In 2017, he was an International Monetary Fund civil society fellow. He participates on the Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity’s subcommittee on institutional strengthening, the National Council for Growth’s technical panel, the UN Democracy Fund’s Strengthening Dialogue and Democratic Institutions in El Salvador’s technical committee, and the UN Technical Roundtable on Strengthening Democratic Institutions. De León earned a bachelor’s degree in law from the José Matías Delgado University, a master’s degree in law and management from Inidem Business and Law School, a senior management program diploma from Central American Institute of Business Administration, and conducted constitutional law postgraduate studies at the University of Salamanca.
Francisco de Santibañes
Francisco de Santibañes is president of the Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI), global fellow at the Wilson Center for International Scholars, and professor at Austral University. He is also author of Argentina and the World: Keys for a Successful Integration; The Rebellion of Nations: Crisis of Liberalism and Rise of Popular Conservatism; and From Perpetual Twilight to Strategic Development. De Santibañes is also the author of numerous articles published in magazines specialized in Argentina and abroad.
Michael Froman is president of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He previously served as vice chair and president of strategic growth at Mastercard and chair of the Mastercard Center for Inclusive Growth. He was also a distinguished fellow at CFR from 2017 to 2023. Froman served in President Barack Obama’s cabinet as the U.S. trade representative from 2013 to 2017. From 2009 to 2013, he served at the White House as assistant to the president and deputy national security advisor for international economic affairs, where he was responsible for coordinating policy on international trade, finance, energy, climate change, and development issues, and served as the U.S. sherpa for the Group of Twenty and Group of Eight summits. Prior to joining the Obama administration, Froman held a number of roles at Citigroup. He was also a senior fellow at CFR and a resident fellow at the German Marshall Fund. In the 1990s, Froman spent seven years in the U.S. government. He served as chief of staff and as deputy assistant secretary for Eurasia and the Middle East at the U.S. Department of Treasury. He also worked at the White House as director for international economic affairs at the National Security Council and National Economic Council. Froman received a bachelor’s degree in public and international affairs from Princeton University, a doctorate in international relations from Oxford University, and law degree from Harvard Law School, where he was an editor of the Harvard Law Review.
Thomas Gomart has been the director of the French Institute of International Relations (Ifri) since 2015. He is a member of the Institute of Advanced Studies in National Defence’s scientific committee and the editorial board of the French journals Politique étrangère, Revue des deux mondes, and Etudes. Gomart was a member of the French Ministry of Armed Forces’ strategic review committee for its Strategic Review of Defence and National Security 2017. He has published extensively on Russia, energy and digital issues, think tanks, and country risk. Gomart’s most recent book is Les ambitions inavouées: Ce que préparent les grandes puissances, and he has also authored L’Affolement du monde and Guerres invisibles. He has been awarded the rank of Knight of the National Order of Merit. Gomart received his EMBA from Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris and his PhD from Pantheon-Sorbonne University.
Jorge Henriquez is the principal researcher for the Open Budget Survey 2023, which analyzes the Honduras budget process and documents, and project and fund manager at the Social Forum on Foreign Debt and Development of Honduras (FOSDEH). Henriquez’s areas of interest include the reduction of irregular migration, public policy, and social change. Henriquez has actively engaged with a diverse set of international organizations and funding sources, including the National Endowment for Democracy, National Democratic Institute, Open Society Foundations, U.S. Agency for International Development, International Budget Partnership, and Oxfam in the United States; International Development Research Centre in Canada; and institutes in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden. He earned his bachelor’s degree in industrial and business administration from the Central American Technological University and an associate degree in small business administration from Hesston College.
Memduh Karakullukçu is the founding president (2009–19) and board member (2009–23) of the Global Relations Forum. He is the venture partner at D4 Ventures, a United Kingdom-based technology investment platform; chairs the international advisory firm Kroton Consulting, advising tech companies on global, legal, and political challenges; and serves as the founding partner of the Turkish online legal informatics initiative Kanunum. Karakullukçu is the senior advisor at Vuslat Foundation, a Switzerland-based international nongovernmental organization on rebuilding social cohesion through innovative communication practices. His policy work includes technology and economic development, technology and security, global energy dynamics, and global economic and financial governance. Previously, he served as founding managing director of the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) ARI science park, Istanbul’s leading technology entrepreneurship community. During his tenure at ITU, Karakullukçu was senior advisor to the president; coordinator of the law, technology, and policy graduate program; and strategic advisor at the university’s Center for Satellite Communications. He has also served as a member of the academic staff at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Earlier in his career, he worked as a specialist in structured finance in London and Istanbul. Karakullukçu recently coauthored a book on Turkish foreign policy, Değerler, Çıkarlar ve Dönüşüm. He received a BS in electrical engineering and economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), an MSc in finance from LSE, and a JD from Columbia University. Karakullukçu is a member of the New York State Bar Association.
Marlos Lima is director for international affairs at the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV). He is also a professor of postgraduate courses on strategic planning, public policy, scenario building, and decision-making under uncertainty. Lima has been involved in many private and public initiatives in Brazil and abroad. He is an economist at the Brazilian School of Economics, visiting professor at many universities in Latin America, founding member of the Latin American Group for Public Administration, and member of the American Academy of Management. Lima holds a master’s degree in public administration and a doctorate in management from FGV.
James M. Lindsay
James M. Lindsay is senior vice president, director of studies, and Maurice R. Greenberg chair at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), where he oversees the work of the more than six dozen fellows in CFR’s David Rockefeller Studies Program as well as CFR’s eleven fellowship programs. He has written widely on the American foreign policy–making process. Lindsay’s most recent book, coauthored with Ivo H. Daalder, is The Empty Throne: America’s Abdication of Global Leadership. His previous book with Daalder, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, was awarded the 2003 Lionel Gelber Prize. Lindsay has been a senior fellow in foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, taught at the University of Iowa and the University of Texas, and from 1996 to 1997 served as director for global issues and multilateral affairs on the staff of the National Security Council. Lindsay writes the blog The Water’s Edge and hosts the weekly podcast The President’s Inbox.
Stefan Mair is director and executive chair of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP). His areas of expertise are German and European Union foreign and security policy, geopolitical and geoeconomic dynamics, and trade and foreign economic policy. From 2010 to 2020, Mair was a member of the Federation of German Industries’ executive board. He joined SWP in 1992 as a research associate, serving as a member of the executive board from 2009 to 2010, research director from 2007 to 2009, and head of the Middle East and Africa research division from 2001 to 2007. Mair earned his PhD from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and was a doctoral scholar in the Ifo Institute for Economic Research’s developing countries department.
Gustavo Martínez is head of public affairs and managing director of the ArgentineCouncil of International Relations (CARI), Argentine executive director for the Think20, and a country expert for the EU Public Diplomacy program in Latin America. He also served as head adviser to the chair of the House Foreign Affairs committee in the Argentine Parliament and academic director and professor in the master’s degree program in diplomacy and foreign policy at the University of Business and Social Sciences. Martínez was previously secretary general of the University of Bologna’s Buenos Aires campus and academic coordinator for its master’s degree in international relations Europe–Latin America, and general manager of the University of the Argentine Social Museum. He has taught political decision theory, history of political ideas, and the history of social policy in Argentina at the University of Belgrano. He holds a bachelor’s degree in international relations from University of Belgrano and a master’s degree in education from the Torcuato Di Tella University.
Fernando Masi is the founder and current director of the Center for Analysis and Dissemination of the Paraguayan Economy (CADEP). He previously worked as a principal adviser to the minister of Industry and Commerce of Paraguay (2009–12) and principal adviser to the minister of Finance of Paraguay (2003–05). Masi has also served as a researcher and consultant at the World Bank, the Economic Commission of Latin America and the Caribbean, the UN Development Program, and the Paraguayan National Council of Science and Technology. In 2001, he was a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at the University of Miami. Masi’s work on the Paraguayan economy, economic integration, competitiveness, and international relations has been published in more than sixty academic papers, articles, and books. He received his BA in sociology from the Catholic University of Asuncion and his MA in international relations from Johns Hopkins University.
Jorge Morel is the director of economics and main researcher at the Peruvian Studies Institute (IEP). His areas of expertise include political economy, private sector studies, and open government and multi-actor mechanisms. Morel has a bachelor’s degree in political science from the Pontifical Chatolic University of Peru and master’s degree in development studies from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.
Carmen Ortiz is permanent associate and member of the board of directors of the Association for Research and Social Studies (ASIES), a Guatemala-based think tank recognized as one of the best in the country, region, and world. She joined ASIES as a researcher in 1998. Ortiz is a political scientist specializing in electoral issues and alternative methods of dispute resolution. She served as a country representative for the American Friends Service Committee in Haiti from 2010 to 2012, where her work focused on conflict and violence prevention. Ortiz previously served as director of the secretariat for strategic analysis in the office of the Guatemalan president, and supported the development of the early warning system to prevent social conflicts. She has also worked as a consultant on security issues for the Latin American Regional office of Interpeace Alliance, an international peacebuilding organization based in Switzerland.
Christopher Sabatini is senior fellow for Latin America at Chatham House and a senior lecturer of practice at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He was a lecturer in discipline at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. From 2005 to 2014, Sabatini was senior director of policy at the Americas Society and the Council of the Americas, founder and editor-in-chief of the hemispheric policy magazine Americas Quarterly, and chaired the organization’s rule of law and Cuba working groups. Sabatini is also on the advisory committees for Human Rights Watch’s Americas Division and the Inter-American Foundation. He is also an HFX fellow at the Halifax International Security Forum. Sabatini is a frequent contributor to policy journals and newspapers, and appears in the media and on panels on issues related to Latin America and foreign policy. In 2015, he founded and directed a new research nonprofit, Global Americas, and edited its news and opinion website. He earned a PhD in government from the University of Virginia.
Tim Sargent is a distinguished fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation with twenty-eight years of experience with the Canadian government. He most recently served as deputy minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Sargent’s research interests center on the implications of digital technologies for the global economy and on how trade policy and international governance can respond to these challenges. He has held positions in five different government departments. In 2016, Sargent became deputy minister of international trade at Global Affairs Canada, where he was involved in negotiations including the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement, the Canada-EU Trade Agreement, and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership. He supported the minister of international trade at the World Trade Organization meetings and helped set up and host the first meeting of the Ottawa Group. Before that, Sargent was associate deputy minister at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and later became associate deputy minister of finance and a Group of Seven, Group of Twenty, and Financial Stability Board deputy. He was also the Department of Finance’s representative on the Financial Stability Board, served as secretary to several cabinet committees, and as assistant secretary to the cabinet on economic and regional development policy. In 2007, Sargent became assistant secretary to the cabinet within the Privy Council Office and was responsible for advising the prime minister on a wide variety of issues, including monetary, tax, and fiscal policy. He began his career at the Department of Finance, where he researched the effects of technological change, policies to combat climate change, and unemployment insurance. Sargent earned a BA in economics from the University of Manchester, an MA from Western University, and PhD in economics at the University of British Columbia.
Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal
Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal has been president of the Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) since 2000. Previously, he served as FGV’s vice president from 1997 to 2000, general director of its Graduate School of Economics (EPGE) from 1994 to 1997, and director of its School of Business from 1992 to 1994. He began his work at the foundation as a professor in the EPGE. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and was awarded Brazil’s Grand Cross of the National Order of Scientific Merit, as well as several military awards. Simonsen Leal studied civil engineering at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and received a PhD in economics from Princeton University.
Jhanvi Tripathi is an associate fellow with the Observer Research Foundation’s (ORF) geoeconomics programme and served as the coordinator for the Think20 India secretariat. She also coordinates ORF’s activities for the BRICS Think Tank Council. Her research focuses on international trade policy, including new trade issues like digital trade policy and gender and trade, in addition to World Trade Organization (WTO) reform and nontariff measures. Tripathi also has a keen interest in conflict resolution and negotiation. Prior to this, she was an associate researcher on international trade policy for the Confederation of Indian Industry, where she worked on India’s free trade agreement negotiations with the European Union and in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, in addition to WTO policy positions. Tripathi has published multiple papers on Africa-India trade, global trade architecture, and trilateral cooperation in international trade. She holds a BA in political science and a diploma in conflict transformation and peacebuilding from the University of Delhi’s Lady Shri Ram College and an MSc in comparative politics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Lia Baker Valls Pereira
Lia Baker Valls Pereira is an associate researcher at the Brazilian Institute of Economics at Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV), where she prepares the Latin American Economic Survey’s report and Foreign Trade Indicators Bulletin and publishes regularly in FGV’s magazine, Economic Situation. She is also a senior fellow at the Brazilian Center for International Relations’ Center on Multilateralism. In recent years, she has researched Brazil-China relations, Brazil-U.S. relations, the BRICS, and reform of the multilateral trade system. Valls Pereira is head of the department of economic analysis at Rio de Janeiro State University School of Economic Sciences and a professor in its department of international relations’ postgraduate program. She has published extensively on trade and international political economy and has worked for Brazilian government agencies and multilateral organizations. Valls Pereira holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, a master’s of philosophy degree in economics from the University of Cambridge, and a doctorate from UFRJ’s Institute of Economics.
Alisa Vogt is program director at Körber-Stiftung’s International Affairs department in Berlin, where she focuses on German foreign policy and European issues. She is also responsible for the Munich young leaders program and the Körber Network foreign policy program. From 2016 to 2020, Vogt worked at Körber-Stiftung in different capacities for the Berlin Pulse, Bergedorf roundtable, and political breakfast series. She gained previous work experience at the Munich Security Conference, the German Embassy to Brazil’s political section, a German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) project on renewable energies, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, and at the technology company Continental. Vogt holds degrees in Latin American studies from Free University Berlin and in international relations and management from Regensburg University of Applied Science, with study visits at Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais and Sorbonne Nouvelle. Between degrees, she worked as a teacher in Buenos Aires.
Szymon Zaręba is head of the global issues program at the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM). He is also an assistant professor at the Polish Academy of Sciences. Zaręba’s research interests include various regulatory issues with an international or EU dimension. He also closely follows developments in the Council of Europe and the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Zaręba has been involved in several collaborative research projects, mainly on international recognition, human rights protection and global health management. He earned an LLM in law and an MA in international relations from the University of Warsaw, and a PhD in law from the Polish Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Law Studies.
Bartłomiej (Bartek) Znojek is a Latin America analyst at the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM). His research includes Latin American countries’ political and economic situation, regional cooperation, and the region’s relations with partners like the United States and China. Znojek also follows Poland and the European Union’s relations with Latin America. He coauthored and coordinated several events in Poland related to Latin America, including on topics such as negotiations on the EU-Mercosur agreement. He holds master’s degrees in international relations and Latin American studies from the Jagiellonian University.
KEYNOTE SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES
Christian Asinelli is the corporative vice president of strategic programming at the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF). He has been appointed to various roles in the public sector and internationally over the past sixteen years, including undersecretary of international financial relations for development, secretariat of strategic affairs for the president of the Argentine Republic, alternate national director of the state modernization project in the Chief of Cabinet of Ministers of the Argentine Republic, representative of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, undersecretary of evaluation of projects with external financing for the Chief of Cabinet of Ministers of the Argentine Republic, director of institutional development at CAF, and president of the Banco Ciudad Foundation. He was a fellow in the Hubert Humphrey fellowship program in 2010, the special program for urban and regional studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2011, and the Singularity University executive program in 2017. He has a political scientist degree from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and a master’s degree in public administration and policy from the University of Saint Andrew in Argentina (UdeSA). He also holds postgraduate degrees in urban economics from the Torcuato Di Tella University and socio-urban management from the Latin American Social Sciences Institute, and a doctorate in political science from the National University of San Martín.
Daniel Vargas is a public policy and law professor at the Economics School of the Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV), and coordinator of the FGV Bioeconomy Observatory. He has served in several positions in the Brazilian government, including as secretary of sustainable development and interim minister of strategic affairs. Vargas is currently a visiting scholar at Cambridge University’s land economy department and at Bonn University’s Center for Development Research. He holds a master’s degree in law from Harvard University and a doctorate.
Mauro Vieira has served as the Brazilian minister of foreign affairs since January 2023. Prior to that, he was Brazil’s ambassador to Croatia, minister of foreign affairs from 2015 to 2016, permanent representative to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States, and ambassador to Argentina. At the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vieira has served as coordinator for international acts, assistant to the secretary general, assistant to the minister of foreign affairs, chief of staff to the secretary general, and chief of staff to the minister of foreign affairs. He has also worked in the Ministry of Science and Technology as deputy secretary general for science and technology, and at the Ministry of Social Security and Social Assistance as national secretary of administration at the Institute of Social Security. Vieira has served abroad as a second secretary at the embassy of Brazil in Washington, DC, as a first secretary at the Permanent Mission of Brazil to the Latin American Integration Association, as counsellor at the Embassy of Brazil in Mexico City, and as minister counsellor at the Embassy of Brazil in Paris. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in law from the Federal Fluminense University and studied at the Rio Branco Institute’s Brazilian Diplomatic Academy. He also received an honorary doctorate of letters from Georgetown University.
Terrence Mullan is associate director of the Council of Councils (CoC) at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). The CoC is CFR’s premier international initiative connecting twenty-seven major policy institutes from both established and emerging nations in dialogue and consensus-building on issues of geopolitics, global governance, and multilateral cooperation. He was previously assistant director and program coordinator for CFR’s International Institutions and Global Governance program. From 2011 to 2016, he was manager of the president’s office at the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, the national trade association representing the leading producers and marketers of distilled spirits. He previously worked in the offices of Senator Roland W. Burris as a legislative aide and Senator Paul G. Kirk Jr. as a legislative correspondent, where he focused on health policy, veterans’ affairs, and economic development. From 2014 to 2015, he was a Frederic Bastiat fellow at George Mason University’s Mercatus Center. His writing has appeared in Defense One, The Hill, World Politics Review, and CNN.com. Mullan earned a BBA in international business and economics from George Washington University, an MA in international commerce and policy from George Mason University, and studied at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is a CFR term member.
Klaus de Freitas Stier
Klaus de Freitas Stier is the manager for international affairs at Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV). He is also a visiting lecturer on geopolitics and international relations at the Brazilian Army Command and General Staff College. At FGV, he is responsible for managing activities with governments, think tanks, and international organizations. For the past ten years, he has been an active interlocutor and promoter of cooperation among global think tanks, organizing summits and representing FGV in think tank networks and conferences. He holds a degree in international relations and a master’s degree in public administration from FGV’s Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration.